Fault current through RScould lead to dangerous overvoltages voltage limiters are required. The dual slope ADC circuit is shown in the figure below. The auto-zero phase The integration phase The de-integration phase All the phases. Today’s Agenda • Provide you with information to promote a safer, more cost efficient operation. To provide security for higher levels of through-current where CT errors reach up to 10%, a second slope is introduced forming a dual slope characteristic. Under normal operating conditions, the curve has a plateau with a small slope and a length of several hundred volts. Incremental data converters operate on a similar principle to modulators but are reset periodically. Dual Slope ADC: It have high accuracy but very slow in operation. Dual Slope A/D Converters. The principle way they convert analog to digital values is by using an integrator. This E-Slope adjustment simply corrects the ratio by a constant which corrects the instrument indication for the unequal spectral emissivities of the target. The biased-differential relay consists of two windings, an operate winding with turns N o and a restraint, or bias, winding with turns N B. The protective scheme should operate only for the internal fault, and it must be insensitive for any fault outside the zone of protection. To date, incremental data converters are generally used with a high OSR in applica- tions where a high accuracy and low offset are required [1]–[3], and there has been some work to reduce this OSR with a hy-brid architecture [4]. Sliding scale principle ... An integrating ADC (also dual-slope or multi-slope ADC) applies the unknown input voltage to the input of an integrator and allows the voltage to ramp for a fixed time period (the run-up period). The correct temperature may be obtained by using a disposable thermocouple. The conventional dual-slope ADC operates in two phases as depicted in Fig. When viewing the molten metal, the E-Slope adjustment is turned until the instrument reads the correct metal temperature. The dual slope restraint characteristic of Figure 5 is a form of adaptive restraint in which the ma g-nitude of the restraint quantity is increased for high current conditions where CT accuracy is worse and CT saturation becomes more probable. Finally, this study also presents a dual mode operation PWM circuit to extend the application of the reported voltage-controlled dual slope operation square/triangular wave generator. In phase I the integrating capacitor CF is charged for a predetermined period of time T1. In this simplified representation, two assumptions are made. ALD500R-50QE Datasheet(PDF) 2 Page - Advanced Linear Devices: Part No. The dual-slope are very precise, but slow converters that use counters to generate the output. The switching frequency of the converter is 250 Hz. The difference in delay between two chains, one for the start and the other for stop pulse, is controlled by the delay locked loop (DLL). As its name suggests, this converter has 2 phases, the first where a voltage ramps up with a certain slope, and the second where the same voltage ramps down with a different slope. The differential protection of power transformer is a unit protection scheme. The dual slope techniques eliminate the sensitivities and hence the mostly implemented approach in DVMs. The TDC operates at clock frequency of 200 MHz, and is composed of 500 delay–latch elements. Differential protection offers fast and reliable protection of critical asset such as a transformer. T he major limitation is the sensitivity of the output to system components and clock. Fundamental Principles Behind the Sigma-Delta ADC Topology: Part 1. by Michael Clifford Download PDF. Dual slope lasers give you the option to induce a grade in both axes giving you a compound grade. The seal is subjected to a great deal of pressure variations and must operate and must operate and seal whether the crankshaft is rotating or is stationary. Principles of Screening and Sizing. Dual slope conversion is very much preferred in precise digital multi-meters, and also in 10-bit to 18-bit conversion modules. This is the basic working principle of a transformer differential protection relay. Basic principles In general, the analog to digital converters is divided to two main parts, single-slope and dual-slope conversion. The percentage restraint characteristic operates on the ratio of operate-to-restraint current in the zone of protection. (ii) Dual slope integrating type Digital Voltmeter. Why is the ramp method of analogue-to-digital conversion an indirect method? Delta-Sigma ADC: It has high resolution but slow due to over sampling. Next, during the second phase of the operation, the capacitor is discharged to zero by a DC reference current. Differential protection in a transformer provides superior protection against: The slope, or tilt exhibited by the amplifier about the low portion of its passband is automatically adjusted and maintained by feedback action. Principles of Differential Relaying Current Balance High Impedance Stabilisation is achieved by means of a stabilising resistor, RS, intended to raise the operating voltage of the system. Flash ADC: It is the fastest ADC but very expensive. Conceptually, the multi-slope run-up algorithm is allowed to operate continuously. The dual converter basic principle of operation can be explained with reference to the simplified equivalent diagram of the DC circuit shown in the figure below. The integration phase. As explained in the Theory of Operation section, the relay uses a dual-slope dual-breakpoint differential characteristic with the restraint signal created as the maximum among the magnitudes of the circuit connected to the protected bus. Dual slope ADCs are accurate but not terribly fast. These fuses are of the time-limit type with an inverse characteristic and do not operate in short duration of the switch in the surge. 2. Pipeline ADC: It is same as that of two step Flash ADC. power-line), for applications where speed is less required makes it quite relevant for this thesis. Then a known voltage of the opposite polarity is applied and allowed to run back down to zero. It has 48 V input voltage, and it feeds a resistive load of 24 Ω. Thus Differential Protection will operate if the Slope is greater than some fixed value which is set in the Differential Protection Relay. Dual converters are ideal that means they produce pure DC output terminals without containing any ripples. Thus, the proposed topologies provide a new choice for electronic engineers, … By counting the time T2, a digital representation of IIN can thus be ... A DC-DC buck converter operates in continuous conduction mode. Functional diagram of Dual slope ADC. ALD500R-50QE: Description PRECISION INTEGRATING ANALOG PROCESSOR WITH PRECISION VOLTAGE REFERENCE: Download 12 Pages: Scroll/Zoom: 100% The ramp type DVM (single slope) is very simple yet has several drawbacks. The Intersil ICL7106 is an ADC that operates on the dual-slope principle. The Σ- ADC is a staple in the tool kit of today’s signal acquisition and processing system designers. Differential protection is also used in protecting other high value assets such as medium voltage motors, reactors, switchgear etc. • Topics covered to include: • Performance and carrying capacity. A column-parallel dual-gain single-slope ADC comprises an input for receiving a signal V in, a sample-and-hold stage which receives V in and outputs sampled signal V in,samp, a comparator, a counter, and a ramp generator which generates high-gain (HG) and low-gain (LG) ramps, with the ratio of the LG ramp slope to the HG ramp slope being greater than 1. Keywords: Time to digital conversion, Vernier delay line, DLL. This leads to a spill current which could operate the relay. The slope characteristic provides high sensitivity when low levels of current are flowing in the zone of protection but has less sensitivity when high levels of current are flowing and false differential current due to current transformer (CT) saturation is more likely. 3. The low-impedance operating principle is enhanced by the use of the Saturation Detector and a The second is a dual slope this type will have a display to see the different grades on the laser and will usually be more expensive than the single slope laser. Presented By: George Schlemmer. What phase/s of the conversion process takes place in a fixed time interval? Suppose, the current in the secondary of CT is 1A at normal operating condition. Consider the figure below. 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